GJ 3942 - Noisy M dwarf with a short-period super-Earth

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GJ 3942 - Noisy M dwarf with a short-period super-Earth

Post by Sirius_Alpha on 20th September 2017, 9:59 pm

HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N at TNG VI. GJ 3942 b behind dominant activity signals

Short- to mid-term magnetic phenomena on the stellar surface of M-type stars cannot only resemble the effects of planets in radial velocity data, but also may hide them. We analyze 145 spectroscopic HARPS-N observations of GJ 3942 taken over the past five years and additional photometry to disentangle stellar activity effects from genuine Doppler signals as a result of the orbital motion of the star around the common barycenter with its planet. To achieve this, we use the common methods of pre-whitening, and treat the correlated red noise by a first-order moving average term and by Gaussian-process regression following an MCMC analysis. We identify the rotational period of the star at 16.3 days and discover a new super-Earth, GJ 3942 b, with an orbital period of 6.9 days and a minimum mass of 7.1 Me. An additional signal in the periodogram of the residuals is present but we cannot claim it to be related to a second planet with sufficient significance at this point. If confirmed, such planet candidate would have a minimum mass of 6.3 Me and a period of 10.4 days, which might indicate a 3:2 mean-motion resonance with the inner planet.

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