# Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris

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## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris

Marasama wrote:Could the dimming be cause by a moon or ring system instead of the large radius?

That's what appears to be the case.
Lazarus wrote:From the paper...
The observations are more consistent with a circumplanetary (proto-satellite) dust disk or a ring system around the planet, as recently inferred for the planet Fomalhaut b in a similar young debris disk (Kalas et al. 2008).

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Sirius_Alpha
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## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris

Interestingly enough, the detection of the possible transit event itself was made by looking through old data... here's the paper, published in 1997.

Lecavelier des Etangs, A. et al., 1997 A&A 328, 311: "Beta Pictoris light variations. I. The planetary hypothesis"

Seems like the possible transit was detected as a result of the star being extensively monitored as it was at the time used as a photometric reference star (this was also before the existence of the dust disk was known). When these variations were detected, Beta Pictoris was dropped as a reference star and it stopped being so extensively monitored. Rather unfortunate, no?

Lazarus
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## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris

That is indeed unfortunate, and ironic.

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## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris

Though a bit late, and lacking interesting details such as the colour change, the possibility of a circumplanetary disk and such, Newscientist is reporting on this.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20127014.700-alien-world-created-stars-odd-twinkle.html

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## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris

Constraining the orbit of the possible companion to Beta Pictoris: New deep imaging observations
http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.5520

Abstract wrote:We recently reported on the detection of a possible planetary-mass companion to Beta Pictoris at a projected separation of 8 AU from the star, using data taken in November 2003 with NaCo, the adaptive-optics system installed on the Very Large Telescope UT4. Eventhough no second epoch detection was available, there are strong arguments to favor a gravitationally bound companion rather than a background object. If confirmed and located at a physical separation of 8 AU, this young (~1500 K) massive Jovian companion (~8 Mjup) would be the closest planet to its star ever imaged, could be formed via core-accretion, and could explain most of the dust disk properties. Our goal was to return to Beta Pic five years later to obtain a second-epoch observation of the companion or, in case of a non-detection, constrain its orbit. Deep adaptive-optics L'-band direct images of Beta Pic and Ks-band Four-Quadrant-Phase-Mask (4QPM) coronagraph images were recorded with NaCo in January and February 2009. We also use 4QPM data taken in November 2004. No point-like signal with the brightness of the companion candidate (apparent magnitudes L'=11.2 or Ks~12.5) is detected at projected distances down to 6.5 AU from the star in the 2009 data. As expected, the non-detection does not allow to rule out a background object; however, we show that it is consistent with the orbital motion of a bound companion getting closer to the star between 2003 and 2009. We place strong constraints on the possible orbits of the companion and discuss future observing prospects. Looking through the paper, it seems that this non-detection of Beta Pictoris b does not rule out a transit way-back-yonder in 1981. _________________ Caps Lock: Cruise control for 'Cool'! Sirius_Alpha Admin Number of posts : 3528 Location : Earth Registration date : 2008-04-06 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris Would it be worth merging this with the other beta Pictoris thread? Let's hope this object can be detected again soon: the combination of direct imaging and transits makes this a very interesting planet, if it can be confirmed. Lazarus dG star Number of posts : 2894 Registration date : 2008-06-12 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris Lazarus wrote:Would it be worth merging this with the other beta Pictoris thread? Yeah, that's sensible. They wrote that Bet Pic b might be detectable again by the Fall of 2009. If it is detected, then perhaps we'll hear of it toward the end of 2009, or perhaps the beginning of 2010. Assuming that the imaged companion candidate is indeed a planetary companion to Beta Pictoris, if the planet is imaged twice, and the locations of the planet in both images line up with the star, than the planet should either transit, or come close to it. I eagerly await a new detection _________________ Caps Lock: Cruise control for 'Cool'! Sirius_Alpha Admin Number of posts : 3528 Location : Earth Registration date : 2008-04-06 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris Another non-detection, with discussions about the constraints of the orbit. Orbital Constraints on the beta Pic Inner Planet Candidate with Keck Adaptive Optics http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.4306 Abstract wrote:A point source observed 8 AU in projection from beta Pictoris in L' (3.8 micron) imaging in 2003 has been recently presented as a planet candidate. Here we show the results of L'-band adaptive optics imaging obtained at Keck Observatory in 2008. We do not detect beta Pic b beyond a limiting radius of 0.29 arcsec, or 5.5 AU in projection, from the star. If beta Pic b is an orbiting planet, then it has moved >=0.12 arcsec (2.4 AU in projection) closer to the star in the five years separating the two epochs of observation. We examine the range of orbital parameters consistent with the observations, including likely bounds from the locations of previously inferred planetesimal belts. We find a family of low-eccentricity orbits with semimajor axes ~8-9 AU that are completely allowed, as well as a broad region of orbits with e<~0.2, a>~10 AU that are allowed if the apparent motion of the planet was towards the star in 2003. We compare this allowed space with predictions of the planetary orbital elements from the literature. Additionally, we show how similar observations in the next several years can further constrain the space of allowed orbits. Non-detections of the source through 2013 will exclude the interpretation of the candidate as a planet orbiting between the 6.4 and 16 AU planetesimal belts. _________________ Caps Lock: Cruise control for 'Cool'! Sirius_Alpha Admin Number of posts : 3528 Location : Earth Registration date : 2008-04-06 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris It's being rather elusive isn't it? Pity there seem to be a lack of observations capable of detecting the planet between the discovery observations in 2003 and the paper published in 2009... Not sure it merits the lack of an (unconfirmed) tag in EPE... Lazarus dG star Number of posts : 2894 Registration date : 2008-06-12 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris As I understand it, it's assumed that the object should be detectable again toward the end of this year. That paper has a rather interesting chart, which shows graphically, constraints on the orbital parameters of the object (a and e). Through 2012, the orbit gets more and more refined as continued non-detections are made. A non-detection by the end of 2013 would result in no acceptable possible orbits. _________________ Caps Lock: Cruise control for 'Cool'! Sirius_Alpha Admin Number of posts : 3528 Location : Earth Registration date : 2008-04-06 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris _________________ Caps Lock: Cruise control for 'Cool'! Sirius_Alpha Admin Number of posts : 3528 Location : Earth Registration date : 2008-04-06 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris Protoplanetary disk spins right to left or left to right? Clockwise or counterclockwise? Borislav Jovian Number of posts : 561 Registration date : 2008-11-12 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris Cheers. Next goal is to see if its transit will occur. Edasich dM star Number of posts : 1530 Location : Tau Ceti g - Mid Latitudes Registration date : 2008-06-02 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris Borislav wrote:Protoplanetary disk spins right to left or left to right? Clockwise or counterclockwise? In that image, the side of the disk on the left of the star is the receeding half, and the side of the disk on the right of the star is the approaching half. Clockwise looking down on the disk from "above." _________________ Caps Lock: Cruise control for 'Cool'! Sirius_Alpha Admin Number of posts : 3528 Location : Earth Registration date : 2008-04-06 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris Thank you. You're right. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beta_Pictoris_system_annotated.jpg http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?2001ApJ...563L..77O&db_key=AST&nosetcookie=1 The disk rotates toward us in the southwest and away from us in the northeast. So around 2005 could be observed transit. If in 1981 was also the transit, then the period can be 24 or 12 years. Borislav Jovian Number of posts : 561 Registration date : 2008-11-12 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris From A Giant Planet Imaged in the Disk of the Young Star β Pictoris http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/science.1187187 Here, we show that the ~10 Myr β Pictoris system hosts a massive giant planet, β Pictoris b, located 8 to 15 AU from the star. This result confirms that gas giant planets form rapidly within disks and validates the use of disk structures as fingerprints of embedded planets. Among the few planets already imaged, β Pictoris b is the closest to its parent star. Its short period could allow recording the full orbit within 17 years. _________________ Caps Lock: Cruise control for 'Cool'! Sirius_Alpha Admin Number of posts : 3528 Location : Earth Registration date : 2008-04-06 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris This thing looks like an overgrown Jupiter analogue, probably a low-eccentricity orbit just beyond the snowline (i.e. where we expect to find the highest efficiency for gas-giant formation). If I'm doing the mathematics right, the semi-amplitude of the astrometric wobble induced by this planet should be somewhere around 2-3 milliarcseconds (assuming a planetary mass 9 times Jupiter's, and a semimajor axis 8-13 AU), which is greater than the wobble induced by υ And d. I wonder how feasible this would be to measure. Definitely a dynamical mass measurement would be very useful for planetary evolution models. Lazarus dG star Number of posts : 2894 Registration date : 2008-06-12 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris Here's another detection of Beta Pictoris b, this time with VLT/NACO. Lazarus dG star Number of posts : 2894 Registration date : 2008-06-12 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris First Results From VLT NACO Apodizing Phase Plate: 4-micron Images of the Exoplanet beta Pictoris b Spectrum is most similar to a field L4 dwarf, though spectral types L0-L7 are compatible. Mass estimate is consistent with previous detections, which is nice. Lazarus dG star Number of posts : 2894 Registration date : 2008-06-12 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris Also separation seems to be now slightly scaled down (6.8 AUs). Edasich dM star Number of posts : 1530 Location : Tau Ceti g - Mid Latitudes Registration date : 2008-06-02 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris New images, complete with observable orbital motion. link. Combining all the data together shows that the planet is moving around the star, as expected from the previous data. Analyzing these new observations, the team was then able to measure the mass of the planet, around 7 to 11 times the mass of Jupiter, and its effective temperature, between 1100 and 1700°C. High angular resolution detection of β Pictoris b at 2.18 μm, by M. Bonnefoy, et al. Published in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2011, vol. 528, L15 I tried to draw a line to connect all three points and the star to check for the possibility of transits, but it didn't quite line up. I don't think this is a very exhaustive analysis though. _________________ Caps Lock: Cruise control for 'Cool'! Sirius_Alpha Admin Number of posts : 3528 Location : Earth Registration date : 2008-04-06 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris The A&A paper is free-access, available here. Lazarus dG star Number of posts : 2894 Registration date : 2008-06-12 ## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris A 5 Micron Image of beta Pictoris b at a Sub-Jupiter Projected Separation: Evidence for a Misalignment Between the Planet and the Inner, Warped Disk http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.4607 We present and analyze a new M' detection of the young exoplanet beta Pictoris b from 2008 VLT/NaCo data at a separation of ~ 4 AU and a high signal-to-noise rereduction of L' data taken in December 2009. Based on our orbital analysis, the planet's orbit is viewed almost perfectly edge-on (i ~ 89 degrees) and has a Saturn-like semimajor axis of 9.55 (+3.46, -2.37) AU. Intriguingly, the planet's orbit is aligned with the major axis of the outer disk (Omega ~ 31 degrees) but probably misaligned with the warp/inclined disk at 50 AU often cited as a signpost for the planet's existence. Our results motivate new studies to determine exactly how\beta\$ Pic b sculpts debris disk structures and whether a second planet is required to explain the warp/inclined disk.

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## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris

Might be possible to explain the disk morphology with β Pic b alone.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.0297

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## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris

Most recent calculation of the planet's orbit reveals that it continues to be consistent with a hypothetical 1981 transit.
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sf2a.conf....3B

Our solutions also favor highly inclined solution with a peak around i=88.5° revealing a probable tilt with a perfectly edge-on configuration. We also derive prediction for transiting events. The solution is consistent with the planet being responsible for the 1981 transiting event.

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## Re: Possible image of an exoplanet next to Beta Pictoris

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