Warm Jupiters are less lonely than hot Jupiters: close neighbours
Exploiting the Kepler transit data, we uncover a dramatic distinction in the prevalence of sub-Jovian companions, between systems that contain hot Jupiters (periods inward of 10 days) and those that host warm Jupiters (periods between 10 and 200 days). Hot Jupiters as a whole, with the singular exception of WASP-47b, do not have any detectable inner or outer planetary companions (with periods inward of 50 days and sizes down to 2REarth). Restricting ourselves to inner companions, our limits reach down to 1REarth. In stark contrast, half of the warm Jupiters are closely flanked by small companions. Statistically, the companion fractions for hot and warm Jupiters are mutually exclusive, in particular in regard to inner companions.
The high companion fraction of warm Jupiters also yields clue to their formation. The warm Jupiters that have close-by siblings should have low orbital eccentricities and low mutual inclinations. The orbital configurations of these systems are reminiscent of those of the low-mass, close-in planetary systems abundantly discovered by the Kepler mission. This, and other arguments, lead us to propose that these warm Jupiters are formed in-situ. There are indications that there may be a second population of warm Jupiters with different characteristics. In this picture, WASP-47b could be regarded as the extending tail of the in-situ warm Jupiters into the hot Jupiter region, and does not represent the generic formation route for hot Jupiters.
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