The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

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The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Led_Zep on 28th February 2013, 12:37 pm

http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1310/

« …Astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope have obtained what is likely the first direct observation of a forming planet still embedded in a thick disc of gas and dust. If confirmed, this discovery will greatly improve our understanding of how planets form and allow astronomers to test the current theories against an observable target.
An international team led by Sascha Quanz (ETH Zurich, Switzerland) has studied the disc of gas and dust that surrounds the young star HD 100546, a relatively nearby neighbour located 335 light-years from Earth. They were surprised to find what seems to be a planet in the process of being formed, still embedded in the disc of material around the young star. The candidate planet would be a gas giant similar to Jupiter… »
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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Lazarus on 28th February 2013, 4:01 pm

There have been suggestions that the disc of HD 100546 is being sculpted by a giant planet before: it's been mentioned in the unconfirmed planets thread here (using the variable star designation KR Muscae) and here.

The possible protoplanet that's been imaged is not that planet - it is too far from the star.
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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Lazarus on 20th June 2013, 5:53 pm

More on the HD 100546 inner system:

Planet or Brown Dwarf? Inferring the Companion Mass in HD 100546 from the Wall Shape using Mid-Infrared Interferometry
http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.4264

From the abstract:
The object in the disk gap of HD 100546 that shapes the disk wall is most likely a 60+20-40 MJup brown dwarf
However, from the conclusion, such an object cannot be the full explanation for the width of the gap:
The effect of a single planet is not enough to explain the full width of the disk gap in HD 100546. Either an additional clearing mechanism, or a multi-planet system is required to explain its extent.
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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Lazarus on 30th October 2013, 4:49 pm

Boccaletti et al. "Multiple spiral patterns in the transitional disk of HD 100546"
http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.7092

Non-detection of the candidate protoplanet in the Ks band, they estimate an upper limit of 16–18 MJ.
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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Stalker on 31st October 2013, 12:30 pm

Still not a confirmation...

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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Edasich on 4th November 2014, 4:36 am

Close to confirmation of HD 100546 b?

Recovery of the Candidate Protoplanet HD 100546 b with Gemini/NICI and Detection of Additional (Planet-Induced?) Disk Structure at Small Separations

We report the first independent, second-epoch (re-)detection of a directly-imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L′ high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager (NICI) on Gemini South, we recover `HD 100546 b' with a position and brightness consistent with the original VLT/NaCo detection from Quanz et al, although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to ≈ 12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR bright, polarized emission extending inwards to at least 0.3". Standard hot-start models imply a mass of ≈ 15 MJ. But if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g. 1--7 MJ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90 degrees away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to ≈ 0.45" embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for 1--2 others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.
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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Sirius_Alpha on 18th December 2014, 5:48 pm

Edasich wrote:Close to confirmation of HD 100546 b?
Yep.

Confirmation and characterization of the protoplanet HD100546 b - Direct evidence for gas giant planet formation at 50 au
http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.5173

We present the first multi-wavelength, high-contrast imaging study confirming the protoplanet embedded in the disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star HD100546. The object is detected at L' (~3.8 micron) and M' (~4.8 micron), but not at K_s (~2.1 micron), and the emission consists of a point source component surrounded by spatially resolved emission. For the point source component we derive apparent magnitudes of L'=13.92±0.10 mag, M'=13.33±0.16 mag, and K_s>15.43±0.11 mag (3-σ limit), and a separation and position angle of (0.457±0.014)'' and (8.4±1.4)∘, and (0.472±0.014)'' and (9.2±1.4)∘ in L' and M', respectively. We demonstrate that the object is co-moving with the central star and can reject any (sub-)stellar fore-/background object. Fitting a single temperature blackbody to the observed fluxes of the point source component yields an effective temperature of Teff=1028+227−253 K and a radius for the emitting area of R=6.0+2.5−2.6 Jupiter radii. The best-fit luminosity is L=(2.3+0.9−0.3)⋅10−4 solar luminosities. We quantitatively compare our findings with predictions from evolutionary and atmospheric models for young, gas giant planets, discuss the possible existence of a warm, circumplanetary disk, and note that the de-projected physical separation from the host star of (53±2) au poses a challenge standard planet formation theories. Considering the suspected existence of an additional planet orbiting at ~13-14 au, HD100546 is a unique laboratory to study the formation of multiple gas giant planets empirically.

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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Stalker on 25th December 2014, 7:09 am

If I understand it's two separate objets, one unconfirmed at 12-13 ua and one at 53 ua... but with the same name.

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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Sirius_Alpha on 25th December 2014, 7:17 am

That's my understanding as well... if the suspect candidate at ~12-13 AU is confirmed, I would hope they would designated it HD 100546 c, respecting the order of confirmation.

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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Led_Zep on 1st July 2015, 2:08 pm

http://spaceref.com/astronomy/observing-the-birth-of-a-planet.html

"...Yet the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile spent an entire night with a high-resolution infrared camera pointed at a single object in the night sky. The data collected by the Naco optics instrument enabled an international team headed by ETH Zurich's Sascha Quanz to confirm its earlier hypothesis: that a young gas planet - presumed not unlike Jupiter in our own solar system - is orbiting the star designated HD 100546..."

Abstract of the Astrophysical Journal
http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/807/1/64/pdf/0004-637X_807_1_64.pdf
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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Stalker on 1st July 2015, 4:03 pm

Still the same problem with the names...

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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Stalker on 16th July 2015, 1:53 am

http://www.popularmechanics.com/space/deep-space/a16295/nccr-find-young-planet/


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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Stalker on 16th September 2015, 12:43 am

http://astronomynow.com/2015/09/14/astronomers-peer-into-the-amniotic-sac-of-a-planet-hosting-star/

High-resolution Br γ spectro-interferometry of the transitional Herbig Ae/Be star HD 100546: a Keplerian gaseous disc inside the inner rim
We present spatially and spectrally resolved Br γ emission around the planet-hosting, transitional Herbig Ae/Be star HD 100546. Aiming to gain insight into the physical origin of the line in possible relation to accretion processes, we carried out Br γ spectro-interferometry using AMBER/VLTI from three different baselines achieving spatial and spectral resolutions of 2–4 mas and 12 000. The Br γ visibility is larger than that of the continuum for all baselines. Differential phases reveal a shift between the photocentre of the Br γ line – displaced ∼0.6 mas (0.06 au at 100 pc) NE from the star – and that of the K-band continuum emission – displaced ∼0.3 mas NE from the star. The photocentres of the redshifted and blueshifted components of the Br γ line are located NW and SE from the photocentre of the peak line emission, respectively. Moreover, the photocentre of the fastest velocity bins within the spectral line tends to be closer to that of the peak emission than the photocentre of the slowest velocity bins. Our results are consistent with a Br γ-emitting region inside the dust inner rim ( ≲ 0.25 au) and extending very close to the central star, with a Keplerian, disc-like structure rotating counter-clockwise, and most probably flared (∼25°). Even though the main contribution to the Br γ line does not come from gas magnetically channelled on to the star, accretion on to HD 100546 could be magnetospheric, implying a mass accretion rate of a few 10−7 M⊙ yr−1. This value indicates that the observed gas has to be replenished on time-scales of a few months to years, perhaps by planet-induced flows from the outer to the inner disc as has been reported for similar systems.



A little question, do you think accretion discs around protoplanets are conected magnetically to the protoplanet like the discs of youg stars?

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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

Post by Edasich on 10th November 2015, 4:52 am

A candidate second planet in HD 100546's disk

Resolving the HD 100546 Protoplanetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager: Evidence for Multiple Forming, Accreting Planets

We report Gemini Planet Imager H band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 $Myr$-old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared bright (super)jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal-infrared (IR) bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission originates an unresolved, point source. HD 100546 b likely has extremely red infrared colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy superjovian planets, however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point source-like peak at $r_{proj}$ $\sim$ 13 AU, located just interior to or at inner disk wall consistent with being a 10--20 $M_{J}$ candidate second protoplanet-- "HD 100546 c" -- and lying within a weakly polarized region of the disk but along an extension of the thermal IR bright spiral arm. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that this feature is a weakly polarized but locally bright region of the inner disk wall. Astrometric monitoring of this feature over the next 2 years and emission line measurements could confirm its status as a protoplanet, rotating disk hot spot that is possibly a signpost of a protoplanet, or a stationary emission source from within the disk.
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Re: The birth of a giant planet around HD 100546 ?

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